Sunday, May 24, 2020

Macroeconomic terms - 4408 Words

Macroeconomic Terms Describe the following terms in your words. Term Definition Gross Domestic Product (GDP) The value of all of the goods and services of a nation in a year. Real GDP The value of all of the goods and services based on inflation of a nation in a year. Nominal GDP Market value of all goods and services of a nation in a year, not based on inflation. Unemployment rate The number of all of the unemployed by the number of people in the workforce. Inflation rate The rate that the prices of goods and services are rising. Fiscal Policy The governmental policies which adjust spending. Monetary Policy The governmental policies that help to control the economy. This is done by adjusting the†¦show more content†¦Ã®  Ã® â€šÃ®â‚¬â€™ The aggregate demand curve slopes downward because of the Real-balance, interest rate and open economy effects î  Ã® â€šÃ®â‚¬â€™ According to the real-balance effect, an increase in the price level Reduces an individual s expenditures due to a decrease in the real value of cash balances î  Ã® â€šÃ®â‚¬â€™ According to the interest rate effect, an increase in the price level Increases î â€šÃ®â‚¬â€™ The relationship between the MPC and the MPS indicates that the entire increase in household disposable income is distributed between consumption and saving. î  Ã® â€šÃ®â‚¬â€™ Planned real investment is determined by the rate of interest î  Ã® â€šÃ®â‚¬â€™ What won t cause the planned investment function to shift rightward? A decrease in the interest rate î  Ã® â€šÃ®â‚¬â€™ An increase in the interest rate causes a decrease in the amount of real planned investment î  Ã® â€šÃ®â‚¬â€™ In the Keynesian model equilibrium national income equals planned consumption, investment, government, and net export expenditures î  Ã® â€šÃ®â‚¬â€™ If real GDP falls below total planned expenditures the economy willShow MoreRelatedMacroeconomics Term Paper : Keynesian Economics999 Words   |  4 PagesMacroeconomics Term Paper: Keynesian Economics John Maynard Keynes: A famous economist John Maynard Keynes once said â€Å"by a continuing process of inflation, government can confiscate, secretly and unobserved, an important part of the wealth of their citizen† (Brainy, n.d., p.1). Keynes had studied in an economics and finance program, and he searched for a solution as he felt that a depression in our economy may be rising. The solution that Keynes discovered was completely different than any otherRead MoreFerguson Enterprise: Macroeconomics Term Paper1379 Words   |  5 PagesFerguson Enterprise. Macroeconomics Term Paper. History: Charles Ferguson, Ralph Lenz, and Johnny Smither founded Ferguson Enterprise Inc., in 1953. The company started with $165,000 in capital, with only two locations, Colmar Manor, Md., and Birmingham, Alabama. During the next five decades, Ferguson saw big growth in revenue and continue to grow rapidly, doubling its size every five years. In 1982, Wolseley plc, which is listed on the London Stock Exchange located in the United Kingdom, boughtRead MoreMacroeconomic Affect On Uk From Long Term And Short Term Sides1590 Words   |  7 Pagesfollowing consistently. Obviously, British economy will be changed; whether it is long-term or short-term, and there must also exit some advantages and drawbacks back this time of leave European. This essay will analyse macroeconomic affect on the UK from long-term and short-term two sides, that organized by different varieties of situations and elements, including: Britain GDP, short –term economic growth, long-term economic growth, the influenc e of Britain trade deals (import and export), currencyRead MorePolicy Review And The Lucas Criticisms Essay919 Words   |  4 Pagesshort term. In the long term, it merely impacts the changes of general price levels, instead of on the changes of total economy. Therefore, in the issues of controlling inflation, monetary economy cycle theory believes that the governments do not need to have to spend too many costs in the relative output and employment to control the inflation, only if the public trust that the monetary authorities will implement their monetary tightening policies. In addition, new classical macroeconomics furtherRead MoreNew Classical Macroeconomics And Macroeconomics Essay1555 Words   |  7 Pagesclassical Macroeconomics is an important school of macroeconomics development since 1970s. New Classical Macroeconomics is originally evolved from the school of Rational Expectations and monetarism. New classical Macroeconomics is also referred to the Macroeconomics of th e rational expectations, or equilibrium method for Macroeconomics. New classical Macroeconomics abides by traditions of the classical economics and believes in the effectiveness of market forces. New classical Macroeconomics tries toRead MoreFinance Is Based On Economics841 Words   |  4 Pagesneeds by humans. Macroeconomics started with John Maynard Keynes, an English economist, who published a book entitled General Theory of Employment, Interest and Money in 1936. Keynes offered a clarification for the fallout from the Great Depression, when goods remained unsold and workers unemployed, a feat that left classical economists stumped. Keynes theory explained why markets may not clear. This theory evolved throughout the 20th century, diverting into several macroeconomic schools of thoughtRead MoreU.S. Federal Government and Economic Issues Essay1231 Words   |  5 PagesThis paper relates to what I have learned in the Macroeconomics class. For this final term paper; I will write about the U.S. federal government operations and how government leaders handle macroeconomic issues in our economy. We will discuss a couple of current economic issues and what the federal government is doing to reach solutions. I will also address U.S. unemployment issues, international trade, fiscal and monetary policies, and methods of alternative energy, along with the Federal Reserve’sRead MoreMacroecnomics1187 Words   |  5 PagesFlows Money Sector Flows Sales Revenue Goods Suppliers (Producers) q = f (L, K, M, T, E) Transformation Expenditure Product/Service Consumption Budget Goods Demanders (Consumers) U = f (q1, q2, †¦) Transformation Goods Markets Macroeconomics U1: Blanchard Chs. 1~2, 27 1. Overview of the Modern Macroeconomy 1.1 Essential Structure (2) Atemporal Transaction in Goods or Factor Markets Supplier/Seller ïÆ'› Receive Goods or Factors Money Payments Demander/Buyer ïÆ'› Pay IntertemporalRead MoreMacroeconomic Variables Of The Stock Market974 Words   |  4 PagesExecutive Summary The belief of macroeconomic variables influencing the stock market has been a highly debated discussion for the past decades. There has been no clear conclusion whether or not macroeconomic variables impact the stock market or inversely. The importance of this study have been increasingly critical as not only stock agents find the critical importance but the government to implement macroeconomic policy; the solid finding of this relation will enable policy makers to efficientlyRead MoreMacroeconomics And Macroeconomics Of Macroeconomics1445 Words   |  6 PagesMacroeconomics (from the Greek prefix makro- meaning large and economics) is a branch of economics dealing with the performance, structure, behavior, and decision-making of an economy as a whole, rather than individual markets. This includes national, regional, and global economies.[1][2] With microeconomics, macroeconomics is one of the two most general fields ineconomics. Macroeconomists study aggregated indicators such as GDP, unemployment rates, National income, price indices, and the interrelations

Thursday, May 14, 2020

Benefits of a Household Food Budget - 685 Words

The development process of this household food budget has successfully proven its importance in the household financial management as well as ensuring the meals meet the family nutritional needs with low cost expenditure. Additionally, managing the food budget may also help the family as a unit share quality time together as they tend to eat together more often for dinner. A family can save hundreds of ringgits a year on their grocery bill if they are able to plan and implement an efficient yet functional household food budget plan. Planning in advance have many benefits such as allows the use of food coupons buying food items when they are on sale as well as planning how to utilize left over by creating a variety of different dishes with leftover while keeping the family appetite interest in hand. Budgeting for each and every food items and leaves some columns for comparing brand, type as well as prices in order to be able to get the best deal from the market place. By this way, unnecessary spending on unhealthy food such as junk foods and beverages which are not necessary can be avoided. The reference family definition based on the dietary intake survey consisted of four (4) members with the parents and a pair of son and daughter. In the mean time, as mentioned in the manual, the data from Census 2010 (Malaysia Department of Statistics, 2011) are applied as additional information for this reference family. Moreover, the six food groups that are required as stated byShow MoreRelatedThe Food, Conservation, And Energy Act Essay1369 Words   |  6 PagesThe Food, Conservation, and Energy Act The Food, Conservation, and Energy Act was passed on May 14, 2008 after a historical veto by the President led to an override by Congress to enact the new farm bill into law. The new bill contained numerous provisions in order to truly reform efforts to establish farm and food safety throughout the United States. This paper will focus on the provision that led to the renaming of the Food Stamp Act and Program as well as the act’s plans to allocate more thanRead MoreThe Importance Of A Family Of Four Household Budgets On A Two Person New Mexico Minimum Wage1446 Words   |  6 Pageswriting about is how to manage a family of four household budgets on a two-person New Mexico minimum wage income of $7.50 per hour. My paper has many purposes as to why I have written it, which will be listed and further explained throughout its entirety. The first purpose is to demonstrate the ways individuals have to seek out in both creating and maintaining a family budget. Secondly, is to show the difficulties that arise in keeping family household budgets and the temporary or permanent ways familiesRead MoreFood Stamp Challenge For Hunger1719 Words   |  7 PagesFood Stamp Challenge Introduction to Hunger Imagine your stomach growling, a feeling of emptiness, fatigue, and an inability to concentrate. Most people would associate these feelings with hunger and eat. Unfortunately, many Americans do not have the luxury of eating because of living in poverty. According to the Census Bureau and the U.S. Department of Agriculture, the number of people living in poverty rose from 31.6 million in 2000 to 36.5 million in 2006. The number of people living in householdsRead MoreStrengths and Weaknesses of Using Food Subsidies in Improving the Welfare of the Poor in Middle Eastern Economies1535 Words   |  6 Pagesproblem facing policy makers is the choice of options means of improving the short run welfare of poor households in the population. Among these, policy alternative is a choice between food subsidies and agricultural production subsidies. Food subsidies involving either the sale of stable food items at subsidized prices, or income transfers, expected to improve the welfare of recipie nt households in the short run directly. On the other hand, agricultural production subsidies and other agriculturalRead MoreThe Economic Impact of Raising the Minimum Wage1474 Words   |  6 Pagessmall businesses. â€Å"The Household Survival Budget for the average New Jersey family of four is $58,500 and for a single adult is $25,368 in 2010. These numbers highlight how inadequate the U.S. poverty designation - $22,113 for a family and $11,344 for a single adult - is as a measure of economic viability. A Sustainable Household Budget, one that enables self-sufficiency in New Jersey, is almost double the cost of the Household Survival Budget.† (Alice 9) This survival budget includes rented efficiencyRead MoreThe Welfare Program Must Be Expanded Without Misappropriation Of Funds1417 Words   |  6 PagesThe United States does not spend too much on the food stamp (SNAP program) and no one deserves to go hungry. Every year during budget talks the welfare program is a featured topic as the government explores ways to cut the budget. There appears to be a lot of unnecessary spending due to abuse of the system and program administration complexity. There are many areas in which reforms could be instituted and the program could be expanded without misappropriation of funds. There should be greater oversightRead MoreAnswers to Concept Checks.1687 Words   |  7 Pagesmajor money management activities? The three major money management activities are (1) storing and maintaining financial records and documents, (2) creating personal financial statements, and (3) creating and implementing a budget. (p. 36) 2. What are the benefits of an organized system of financial records and documents? An organized system of financial records provides a basis for: (1) handling daily business activities, such as bill paying; (2) planning and measuring financial progress;Read MoreAmerica Needs Welfare Reform Essay1742 Words   |  7 PagesThere was once a myth of a woman called â€Å"The Welfare Queen†. She was a woman, generally African American, with several children to collect benefits from, she would sit on the couch or drive around in a fancy car and it was all paid for through the government (Stein). She never worked a day in her life because it was just easier to get pregnant and receive TANF benefits. This has slowly changed over the years, now it is not just African American women, 38.8% of recipients on welfare are white but 39.8%Read More10 Ways to Save Money on Groceries Essay635 Words   |  3 Pageshard to keep food on the table. The price of the regular household bills, gas, and necessities are increasing. The price of food is getting higher as well. The f ollowing are some tips to help people, who are having a hard time, spend less money on their grocery bills. Set a budget Set up a household food budget and don’t go over that set amount of money. You probably have an idea what the cost of most of the food you buy usually is. Keep the prices in mind when you make the budget. Make a listRead MorePoverty And Health : Low Income Limits Choices Essay1732 Words   |  7 Pageshealth: Low income limits choices to cheap and unhealthy foods Poverty tends to impact society on several different levels, whether it may be through the impact of the economy, social effects, education, health, but most importantly malnutrition; which is said to be the most common effect of poverty. Poverty affects millions of Americans by limiting their choices to cheap and unhealthy foods. It also limits the physical access to healthy food choices as it relates to diet costs and reliable access

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Intelligence Failures 9/11 and Pearl Harbor Essay

Throughout history there are multiple intelligence failures such as 9/11 and Pearl Harbor. These failures are due to intelligence collected which was either delayed or misdirected to the rest of the intelligence community. Both events had catastrophic consequences and yet these tragic events has allowed the intelligence community to develop better security like warning signals and combat readiness to protect the United States. Pearl Harbor is still considered one of the worst intelligence failure in the history of the United States to date. During the upcoming months before the attack the U.S Naval Fleet intercepted and deciphered vast amounts of encrypted messages from Japan’s Imperial Navy. Due to manpower and at the time Japan†¦show more content†¦In the beginning of the Cold War the â€Å"United States had very little SIGNIT intelligence, HUMINT or IMINT intelligence either. This was due to since overflights of Soviet territory were impossible† (Schind ler). Because of this, this caused great delays in trying to infiltrate the Soviet Union and gather intelligence. HUMINT collection at that time was difficult because there was not much known about the Soviet Union and infiltrating Russia was difficult because the lack of intelligence this made is hard when it came o gathering HUMINT intelligence. Another issue the intelligence community ran into was HUMINT collectors were not equipped to understand other languages. This made it hard to recruit sources within the Soviet Union. As the Cold War raged on, the intelligence community along with working in tandem with the U.S government started to develop better technology and have a better understanding of how the Soviet Union works. The United States Airforce started flying dangerous reconnaissance missions through the use of ELINT collection. Unfortunately, many pilots lost their lives due to the Soviet Union shooting down their aircrafts. Later, the United States military revert ed back to SIGNIT intelligence in hopes of having more success. SIGNIT tends to be flexible, and is more responsive for the needs to infiltrate the Soviet Union at that time than any other form of intelligence collection (Aid and Wiebes). Using SIGNIT intelligence and the use ofShow MoreRelatedThe Attack On Pearl Harbor2762 Words   |  12 Pages There are two important dates that reside in the American history in the last century: the Japanese attacks on Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941 and the World Trade Center attacks on September 11, 2001 (as referred to as September 11th, or 9/11). On these two dates, the surprised events attacked on American civilians and military personnel. Both horrific events have many similarities and many differences in regards to who carried out the attacks, what the objectives were for the attacks and theRead MoreThe Attack On Pearl Harbor1856 Words   |  8 PagesJapanese attack on Pearl Harbor, and September 11, 2001. On these dates, two surprise attacks on American civilians and military personnel showcased U.S. vulnerability to outside forces and united a nation against those that wished to harm her. Both horrific events have many similarities and many differences in regards to who carried out the attacks, what the objectives were for the attacks, and the American response after these i nfamous dates occurred. Unlike September 11, 2011, where a terroristRead MoreToo Great a Challenge: The Mismatch of U.S. Intelligence Capabilities and Mission Prior to Pearl Harbor 2116 Words   |  9 PagesThe U.S. was under-prepared for the Japanese attack at Pearl Harbor due to the nascent intelligence communitys inability to determine the time and place of the attack. The question of preventing the attack is beyond the scope of an intelligence agency, such an action is the product of policy. That being said, the intelligence community provided the President with insufficient information to mitigate U.S. losses on the eve of the U.S. entry into World War II. This result was not wholly the responsibilityRead MoreThe Security And Foreign Policy1302 Words   |  6 Pagesenforcement and intelligence is the principal method of accomplishing this (Hughbank Githens, 2010). Intelligence is vital to homeland defense and security. The U.S. intelligence community (IC) has the responsi bility of conducting intelligence activities that are necessary for conducting foreign relations and for the national security of the United States (â€Å"Intelligence Community†, n.d.). The following is a brief report about the U.S. intelligence community and the history of U.S. intelligence and informationRead MoreNational Security And Homeland Security1788 Words   |  8 PagesIntelligence deals with the process in which specific types of information has been collected, analyzed, refined and provided to the policy makers, so that it will be useful to them in decisions making about potential threats to national security and homeland security (Lowenthal, 2014, p. 10). U.S Government has been benefiting from Intelligence information since the beginning of the country, despite the fact that many people thought that U.S intelligence emanated as a result of cold war (FederationRead MoreEssay on We Must Not Treat Muslims as We Treated the Japanese951 Words   |  4 PagesJapa nese nbsp; The terrorist attacks on 9-11 have frequently been analogized to Pearl Harbor. In many ways, the analogy is apt. Just as that attack launched us into World War II, the attacks on the World Trade Center and the Pentagon have launched us into a new kind of war, against terrorism. But waging this sort of borderless war poses great risks, not only to the soldiers commanded to fight but also to core American values. In this way, Pearl Harbor raises other disturbing memories, those ofRead MoreThe Attack on Pearl Harbor Essay1680 Words   |  7 Pages 2,403 soldiers were killed in action, 1,178 were wounded in action. Through the misjudgments of numerous U.S. armed forces personnel, the Japanese were able to carry out this terrible attack, which crippled the United States’ Pacific Fleet in Pearl Harbor, Hawaii. â€Å"Yesterday, December 7, 1941, a date which will live in infamy, the United States of America was suddenly and deliberately attacked by naval and air forces of the Empire of Japan†¦As Commander-in-Chief of the Army and Navy, I have directedRead MorePearl Harbor : Could It Have Been Prevented?1997 Words   |  8 PagesPearl Harbor: Could it Have Been Prevented? Yesterday, December 7, 1941 — a date which will live in infamy — the United States of America was suddenly and deliberately attacked by naval and air forces of the Empire of Japan (((Frost))). This famous quote is recognized by many across the world. Franklin Delano Roosevelt made that quotation after the Japanese attacked the U.S. airbase in Hawaii. Many people have believed, however, that this attack could have been prevented. The attack on PearlRead MoreIntelligence Failures and Political Realism548 Words   |  2 PagesIntelligence Failures and Political Realism Intelligence Failures: Following the terrorist attacks on the World Trade Center, the Pentagon and Flight 93 on September 11th, 2001, U.S. security and intelligence leaders scrambled for an explanation. While a great many questions over what transpired on 9/11 remain unanswered even to this day, one certainty is that American intelligence experienced its most glaring historical failure since the attack on Pearl Harbor. How these intelligence failuresRead MoreThe Intelligence Failure Of Pearl Harbor3558 Words   |  15 PagesIntelligence failure is not a phenomenon which is new. Over the last hundred years there have been repeated cases of Intelligence failure. When the Intelligence community failed, it often led to significant repercussions for the political side. Sometimes the failure led to massive loss of life like in the example of Pearl Harbor in 1941 and the attacks on the twin towers on September 11, 2001. Most of these cases have been well analyzed and have led the policy makers to adopt reforms to prevent future

Tuesday, May 5, 2020

Impact of Social Media on Consumer Decisions

Question: Discuss about theImpact of Social Media on Consumer Decisions. Answer: Introduction: The web 2.0 emergence happened to be a significant development towards history of commerce. The social media being the other buzzword that on web 2.0 based is a revolution that not only helps encourage contents those are user generated but also focuses that allows users to exhibit contents and share between networks (de Kervenoael, Aykac, Palmer, 2009). This technical revolution especially presently in last decade drastically has revolutionized the tradition approaches of marketing with the help of social media marketing. This new era of marketing revolutionized the marketers relationship with their distribution channels, retailers and consumers. Being information age the consumers with overwhelming information quantities are overburdened every day (Evans Cothrel, 2014). Thus looking at numerous campaigns related social media, e-commerce websites, forums, sales emails etc. suggest all companies moving towards internet marketing approaches for target audience accessibility and required money in doing so. The approach related traditional advertising of mass communication media like television, magazines and newspaper aims towards conveying to broader audience group messages with the hope in reaching interested few. With much of the stimuli bombardments, the individuals have become more cautious and adjusted to information seeking (Clarke, 2014). Therefore, it is necessary for Wesfarmers to understand reasons regarding particular concern of consumers and seek ways towards speaking individually, or in small groups to customers. Social media marketing is another alternative for interfacing with the consumers to understand their perspective. Therefore, social media focuses on the consumers with market and business perspective that helps marketers with new tools for interacting with the consumers and integrate these onto the brands through process of innovation. Hence, the research aims towards evaluating the impact of the social media on the consumer decisions that requires Wesfarmers a large and successful retail company in Australia with own retail chains has to understand the impact of social media that influences the consumer behaviour related to buying (Wesfarmersonline, 2016). Literature Review and Theoretical Background According to the Janowski and Mohanty (2010), advancement of the internet and Web 2.0 emergence the interconnectivity on the internet has expanded between the individuals. This has helped immensely to enable the development to collaborate on internet among the businesses and the customers. This having emerged based on the social media, that has enabled the consumers with generating content and conduct the online social interactions through the social platforms. There exist various social media tools and platforms, which have facilitated the sharing of information. These tools for instance such as the Wikipedia, an encyclopaedia free online, is one such most popular platform that provides the users with the facility to collaborate through information sharing. The other platforms provide ability related to generating ratings and reviews like the Amazon.com that enables the customer with facility to review the products and rate them. Further, these platform members are interdependent co operatively (Hudson Thal, 2013). The consumers using the social media can create the content and offer to the others valuable advice. The online communities with these new developments and the individuals emerge using this electronic network on the social platforms where these members share quickly and globally the information. The social networks rise has provided with new era related to the creation of content that has given the individuals to share easily the information and the experiences with other social network users (Forbes Forbes, 2013). The online businesses related to next generation shall be according to communities that is better tool for attraction of new customers. Heinonen, (2011) stated that, online communities provide opportunity to companies with good system related to managing customer relationship with new developments to improve business performance. Further, assuming these platforms through social interaction the members become familiar to each other providing trust source possible that greatly influence users buying intention. Simultaneously, it is vital to have business model that adapts to social commerce for companies. Thus, social media provides businesses opportunities to become universally more attractive through the social interactions of the consumers that affect their deci sions. The Hypothesis and Research Questions Hypothesis Null Hypothesis (H0): Social media influences the consumer decision Alternative Hypothesis (H1): Social media do not influence consumer decision Research Questions What factors influence consumer decision process in products and services? How social media influence consumer decision process in Wesfarmer? How influence the consumer decision process related to products/services through social media in Wesfarmer? The Operation and Measurement Definition The study is been based on variables and link impact investigation (Cabosky, 2016). The variables that study uses both dependent and independent variable with social media as dependent variable, which is important part, and consumer decision process as independent variable The Research Design and Methodology: Analysis and Data collection Sampling Techniques This study focuses on primary and secondary data collection. The primary data through both quantitative and qualitative collected. The quantitative data collected from customers through survey method and qualitative data through interview process collected from Wesfarmers managers (Shelton, 2013). Additionally the secondary data collected both from online and offline sources such as journals, websites, newspapers, business magazines and library sources. Through the probabilistic sampling process, the customers surveyed are selected by giving them to participate equal opportunity in survey process. Alternately, through non-probabilistic sampling technique the managers being interviewed are chosen. This is conducted based on the participation process and busy schedule. Customers: Hundred Managers: Three Method of Analysis The quantitative data represented via tools, statistical techniques like graphs, tables, pie chart, and SPSS software while qualitative data is reflected through analysis and presentation (Page Pitt, 2011). Research Process Week 1 Week 2 Week 3 Week 4 Week 5 Week 6 Week 7 Week 8 Week 9 Week 10 Main Activities/ Stages Selection of research area Developing aim, objectives, research questions and research proposal hypotheses Preparation Conduct literature review Identification and selection of data collection methods interview/survey, ethics form preparation Collecting primary data Analyzing data Comparing findings Conclusion recommendations à ¯Ã¢â‚¬Å¡Ã‚   collecting feedback from mentor à ¯Ã¢â‚¬Å¡Ã‚   à ¯Ã¢â‚¬Å¡Ã‚   à ¯Ã¢â‚¬Å¡Ã‚   à ¯Ã¢â‚¬Å¡Ã‚   à ¯Ã¢â‚¬Å¡Ã‚   Finalization and submission Result Expected This study provides that social media impacts consumer decisions regarding Wesfarmers products/services. Conclusion The research helps to conclude the fact that in making purchase decisions are impacted with information that social media provides that helps in decision making regarding products/services. The process is linked with aims and objective towards effectively achieving it. References Cabosky, J. (2016). Social media opinion sharing: beyond volume.Journal Of Consumer Marketing,33(3), 172-181. https://dx.doi.org/10.1108/jcm-02-2015-1323 Clarke, R. (2014). The Prospects for Consumer-Oriented Social Media.Organizacija,47(4). https://dx.doi.org/10.2478/orga-2014-0024 de Kervenoael, R., Aykac, D., Palmer, M. (2009). Online social capital: Understanding e-impulse buying in practice.Journal Of Retailing And Consumer Services,16(4), 320-328. https://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jretconser.2009.02.007 Evans, D. Cothrel, J. (2014).Social customer experience. Indianapolis, Ind.: Sybex/John Wiley Sons. Forbes, L. Forbes, L. (2013). Does Social Media Influence Consumer Buying Behavior? An Investigation Of Recommendations And Purchases.Journal Of Business Economics Research (JBER),11(2), 107. https://dx.doi.org/10.19030/jber.v11i2.7623 Heinonen, K. (2011). Consumer activity in social media: Managerial approaches to consumers' social media behavior.Journal Of Consumer Behaviour,10(6), 356-364. https://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cb.376 Hudson, S. Thal, K. (2013). The Impact of Social Media on the Consumer Decision Process: Implications for Tourism Marketing.Journal of Travel Tourism Marketing,30(1-2), 156-160. https://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10548408.2013.751276 Page, K. Pitt, L. (2011). Web 2.0, Social Media, and Creative Consumers: Special Issue.Journal of Consumer Behaviour,10(6), i-iii. https://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cb.390 Shelton, T. (2013).Business models for the social mobile cloud. Hoboken, N.J.: John Wiley Sons. Wesfarmersonline. (2016).Wesfarmers.com.au. Retrieved 25 August 2016, fromhttps://www.wesfarmers.com.au/ Janowski, T. and Mohanty, H. (2010). Distributed computing and internet technology. Berlin: Springer.

Saturday, April 4, 2020

BP Amoco Essays - Standard Oil, Amoco, BP, Big Oil, Petroleum

BP Amoco BP Amoco British Petrochemical Corporation registered on April 14, 1909, as the Anglo-Persian Oil Company, Ltd. It was named the Anglo-Iranian Oil Company, Ltd., in 1935 and changed its name to the British Petroleum Company Limited in 1954. The current name was adopted in 1982. The company's headquarters are in London. The Anglo-Persian Oil Company was formed in 1909 to take over and finance an oil-field concession granted in 1901 by the Iranian government to an English investor, William Knox D'Arcy. (Britannica) In 1914 the British government became the company's principal stockholder and over the years was usually the largest single stockholder. Effective January 1, 1955, British Petroleum became a holding company. In the beginning of the 1977 the British government reduced its ownership of BP by selling shares to the public, and in the late 1980s the government turned over BP entirely to private ownership by selling its remaining shares of the company. In 1987 BP acquired the remainder of the Standard Oil Company for almost $8 billion reinforcing its position as one of the largest oil companies in the world. Amoco Corporation formerly Standard Oil Company, American petroleum corporation, was founded in 1889 by the Standard Oil trust to direct the refining and marketing of oil in the Midwestern states. The company's first refinery, outside Whiting, Ind., produced fuel oil, kerosene, and other petroleum products. Around 1910 Standard Oil developed the cracking process, which became the most important method fro producing gasoline from petroleum. In 1911 the U.S. Supreme Court dissolved the nationwide Standard Oil trust, and Standard Oil (Indiana) became independent. Its headquarters are in Chicago. (Britannica) In the 1920 Standard Oil acquired partial interest in companies that owned Midwestern oil fields and pipeline networks in order to add production to its refining and marketing operations. In the 1950s Standard Oil became active in oil exploration and production ventures in South America and the Middle East. In 1961 most of the company's U.S. operating activities were unified in the American oil company, for which Standard Oil (Indiana) served as a holding company. The byname Amoco was increasingly used as a brand and corporate name. In 1985 the Standard Oil Company (Indiana) became officially the Amoco Corporation. On December 30,1998, BP and Amoco confirmed that the US Federal Trade Commission (FTC) has granted regulatory approval for the merger of the two companies and that completion of the deal will take place at year-end. Both companies agreed to intend to close the transaction shortly after 2100 hours London time on December 31, 1998, when Amoco's stock will leave the Standard Poor 500 and the shares of the merged group, BP Amoco p.l.c., will be listed on the London Stock Exchange. With a market capitalization of more than $140 billion, BP Amoco p.l.c. is the Britain's biggest company and one of the world's top three oil majors. "We aim to play a leading role in meeting the world's needs for oil, gas, solar power and petrochemicals without damaging the environment." BP AMOCO'S WORLD The BP Amoco group stands out as a complete provider of energy and petrochemicals. Every day they serve millions of customers with products to the quality of their lives ? fuel for transport, energy for heat and light, solar power, and petrochemicals for plastics, fibres and fabrics. Explorers from Amoco and BP have led the way in finding the world's giant oil and gas fields and getting energy to the world's marketplace. According to Larry Fuller and Peter Sutherland, co-chairmen, the meeting the demand of energy calls for a blend of outstanding human and technical skills, sophisticated global organization and two-way relationships with local communities, customers, contractors, partners, government and employees. BP Amoco's aim is to be successful in everything they do by delivering outstanding performance. Their business is about discovery ? about finding, producing and marketing the natural energy resources on which the modern world depends. Their sales revenues, market value, and oil and gas reserves make BP Amoco one of the three largest integrated energy companies in the world. They operate in one hundred countries on six continents. Each day they generate almost three million barrels of oil equivalent production, of which sixty-five percent is oil and thirty-five percent natural gas. They have well-established operations in Europe, North and South America, Australia and much of Africa. BP Amoco is distinguished by the financial resources to operate on a global scale, the technical capacity to seize opportunities, and a flexible management structure. The core of their business is a world-class set of assets. In Britain they are the largest producer of oil and gas from the North Sea and West of

Sunday, March 8, 2020

Free Essays on Religion

World Views on Religion Religion is the eternal search for the divine. This quest has been sought after since the dawn of mankind. Over time there have been countless types of religions. People have died for their religion, people have killed for their religion and people have dedicated their lives to their religion. With such a powerful force as religion it is no wonder why people are so dedicated to their beliefs. Due to this fact it is easy to see why there is so much conflict in regards to this driving force. There are many types of world views that define the meaning of religion. I feel that religion is a choice of a person’s beliefs and the goals in their daily lifestyle they wish to pursue. Every culture in the religious world differs from one another. The question we ask ourselves is what is the difference? The beliefs of the eastern philosophies have a different outlook on religions than the western philosophies. In the western beliefs, people focus on the question in relation to one single god and its overall relationship with the universe and mankind. In the eastern beliefs people analyze the factual details in life and nature and the spirituality in life. As of my own personal views on religion as a whole, I believe that it works as a foundational â€Å"brace† for humankind. It allows a culture to follow traditions in their religion to reach their goals and moral standards.... Free Essays on Religion Free Essays on Religion It is important to show simultaneously the exceptional and the common, the national and the universal, the realistic and the mystical. The moment a writer attempts to generalize a problem and see it on an expansive scale, he stops being a writer. It is only after his literary endeavor is completed that he may go and make a speech in support of a candidate or a loved one. His novel, however, must not be a political dissertation. The role of literature is not to analyze ideas but to describe experiences. Frankly, mixing social and political issues with writing is not a very healthy practice: its outcome will reside outside true literature. True literature focuses on experiences and situations. When you read the Bible, you do not know what somebody was thinking, but you always know what the person was doing. People may sit and talk for hours about what they are thinking, but it is only through their action that we may judge their true colors. It is a heresy of our times that we use our thoughts and moods as the yardsticks in appraising almost everything that is around us. Instead of searching for words, the contemporary art of writing consists of restricting them so much that they become cliches. I refer to such words as good, bad, decent, immoral, charming, ugly, noble, abstract, cunning, talented those and many others which have been emasculated. Talents are born; I do not believe talent can be achieved through hard work. Genes do not produce many talents, in every generation talent is a rarity. Talent is a freak of nature. At the same time, it would only be fair to say that a talented person may write bad novels and bad stories. AZ-B: How do you write? IBS: In my early days, I wrote in the third person, now in the first, but I will go back to narrate in the third person. I write with a pen, then I type, but I find it more and more difficult to write by hand. I think I will soon switch over to a typewri... Free Essays on Religion case for prayer in school Many people believe that prayer and religion should be placed in schools for the betterment of children of all ages and society as a whole. There are many strong opposing facts to say why prayer and religion should not be allowed in schools. Those who feel religion has a place in school say that the violence of the world would be diminished with religion and prayer in schools. While those who feel otherwise believe prayer in school would not do any good and that it blatantly violates the 1st and 14th Amendments of the United States Constitution. In this paper I will argue why religion and prayer should be placed in school to increase morale and behavior of children, and how prayer in school would decrease violence in and out of school. The separation of Church and State is a fundamental principle of American government which rests primarily on the Constitution's First Amendment, which states: "Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof." While many may argue that prayer in school violates the constitution, our First Amendment didn't separate God and government but actually encouraged religion. The First Amendment of the Constitution declares that the federal government cannot establish one religion for all of the people. The simple idea of everyone in our nation being limited to one form of religion is inconceivable. The second section insists that the government should do nothing to prevent people from exercising religion. But forbidding officiated prayer in schools discourages religion, doesn't it? The founders of the Constitution recognized the freedom of religion as an important factor in establishing a democracy. The government is not upholding their part of the Constitution. They are trying to tell people that saying prayers in public school is unconstitutional. I attended a public school which allowed us to pray before class. Pray... Free Essays on Religion While other religions are precisely defined by explicit and often unyielding beliefs, Hinduism condones no such constraints. For the Hindu, intuition is far more important than intellect; experience supercedes dogma; and personal realization is held infinitely more precious than outer expressions or affiliations of faith. Philosopher and once President of India, S. Radhakrishnan said it well: "The mechanical faith which depends on authority and wishes to enjoy the consolations of religion without the labor of being religious is quite different from the religious faith which has its roots in experience." Hindu religious philosophy is based on experience, on personal discovery and testing of things. It does not say, "Believe as others do or suffer." Rather, it says, "Know thy Self, inquire and be free." There are no heretics in Hinduism, for God is everywhere and in all things. In such an open laboratory, Hindu spirituality has grown over the millennia so diverse and rich that it defies definition. Even knowledgeable Hindus, after a lifetime of study, will hesitate to say that Hinduism is one thing and not another. Indeed, the very idea of a Hindu catechism is, for many, unthinkable, a perilous and impertinent pursuit. Until now, no one has attempted such a complete overview, making this a rare, and perhaps remarkable, book. One might even say an inevitable one. If, therefore, in undertaking the impossible we have overlooked any lineage, neglected any tradition or vital issue, please call to mind that it is human to err and only God is perfect and find room in your heart to overlook a ny oversight. A simple warning is due. This collection of customs and beliefs is not a detached, scholastic analysis of Hinduism, but a view from the inside, a view of the religion as Hindus themselves would wish their tradition honored and explained to others. Nor is this yet another dogma added to the mountains of doctrines and decrees which ha... Free Essays on Religion Religion is part and parcel to every culture’s worldview. Religion serves to answer questions, which otherwise are beyond a group’s control. Whereas in most complex cultures religion has a certain time and place, amongst structurally simpler societies, religion is inextricably weaved in the fabric of their existence. The supernatural beings that are specific to a certain culture can be grouped into several categories. First, there are gods and goddesses. A pantheistic religion has several gods and goddesses. Goddesses are most prominent in societies where women play a significant role in the economy and in egalitarian economies. Second, ancestral spirits resemble humans in their appetites, feelings, emotions and behavior. Ancestral spirits reinforce social reality. Third, we have animism, a belief that nature is energized by distinct personalized spirits, separate from bodies. This belief is popular amongst people who view themselves as a part of nature rather than supe rior to it. Fourth, is animatism; a belief that nature is enlivened by a certain impersonal spiritual power. Religious specialists, also known as priest priestesses, and shamans serve to guide and supplement religious practices. All cultures have religious rituals that mark important events in the persons life. These rites of passage have three different cycles, including separation, transition, and incorporation. Witchcraft serves as a means for people to explain their personal misfortunes. It allows them to place blame on something or someone else rather than to take responsibility of their own actions. Religon serves many functions, some of them which include, building social solidarity, and providing guidelines of acceptable conduct.... Free Essays on Religion Religion: Important or Insignificant? Religion is a very vital and meaningful thing in most people’s lives. Each person believes in a type of religion to guide their lives or doesn’t believe in it at all. This is an important ethical issue to Americans and world citizens that involves questions of duty, consequences, and moral reconstruction and was highly recognized by many famous philosophers such as Immanuel Kant, John Dewey, Karl Marx, and Augustine. Dewey begins by claiming that doubt or insecurity creates the quest for certainty. Before there was modern science, religion had an answer to all questions about the world and any doubt was resolved by religious explanations. "Unity of thought and practice extended down to every detail of the management of life; effectiveness of its operation did not depend upon thought. It was guaranteed by the most powerful and reliable of all social institutions."(Pg. 291) This â€Å"powerful authority† was religion and it was very useful in sustaining a stable social system in times when security was hard to come by. Religion’s function was to provide certainty, but the development of science began eating away at away this single reality. Dewey defined religion as the higher realm, "consisting of the powers which determine human destiny in all important affairs"(Pg. 290). The other significant field of exploration was man’s own skill or matter-of-fact insight. Based on the same concept as mathematics, the idea of having a purely logical and rational knowledge became very important. Many people began to believe that this â€Å"rational ideal† was exercised in science. Science tended to have â€Å"explained† many things that led to a questioning of the importance of religion in people’s daily lives. Science uses an experimental procedure in order to draw conclusions about a given situation. The use of the experimental method in order to determine things was changing the way one ha... Free Essays on Religion There is nothing more powerful than a strong belief, it is what pushes a zealot, and it is what brings people together. Religion is the core of civilization, but is it still needed in today’s society? In the past it has been used to placate people during hardships, to make them realize that no matter how bad things are now, there will come a time of peace. It doesn’t matter if life is tough and there is no reason to fear death, because in the end all righteous people will reach a better place. There are no highs nor lows, tremendous victories, or crushing defeats, they are all gods’ will and you are no more than a pawn in a cosmic game of chess between good and evil. This is why religion is not as widespread and zealously followed in a place like the United States as it is in most third world countries. Citizens of the United States are living the good life, we are rewarded for the work we do, we don’t have widespread poverty and starvation there is a sense of security v! irtually all the time. People in third world countries don’t have the luxuries of a nice house, or warm meal like we do, and in many of those countries violence is a daily occurrence. Gunfire and bombings do irreparable damage to the human psyche, these people need something to cling to, and when death is everywhere it is something you worry about on a daily basis. "As I understand the Christian religion, it was, and is, a revelation. But how has it happened that millions of fables, tales, legends, have been blended with both Jewish and Christian revelation that have made them the most bloody religion that ever existed?" - John Adams, letter to F.A. Van der Kamp, Dec. 27, 1816 The danger of religion lies in belief and how it affects desperate and evil people. Being raised in a shack, sleeping on a dirt floor, eating spoiled food, and the interminable presence of death are the fuel for the fire. In the United States we worry about television ... Free Essays on Religion No part of the Bible and its interpretation is more controversial than the book of Revelation. The book of Revelation is the last profound book in the New Testament. It conveys the significant purpose of Christianity by describing God’s plan for the world and his final judgment of the people by reinforcing the importance of faith and the concept of Christianity as a whole. This book was written by John in 95 or 96 AD. What is, what has been, and what is to come is the central focus of the content in Revelation. Literalist fundamentalists read Revelation’s multivalent visions as predictions of doom and threat, of punishment for the many and salvation for the elect few. Scholarly scientific readings seek to translate the book’s ambiguity into one-to-one meanings and to transpose its language of symbol and myth into description and facts. In Elisabeth Schà »ssler Fiorenza’s The Book of Revelation: Justice and Judgment, a third way of reading Revelation is depicted. The collection of essays in this book seeks to intervene in scholarly as well as popular discourses on the apocalypse from a liberationist feminist perspective. The first two parts of the book discuss the kind of theological-historical perspective and ecclesial situation that determines the form-content configuration of Revelation. The first section attempts to assess the theological commonality to and differences from Jewish apocalypticism. Fiorenza focuses of the problem that although Revelation claims to be a genuinely Christian book and has found its way into the Christian canon, it is often judged to be more Jewish than Christian and not to have achieved the â€Å"heights† of genuinely early Christian theology. In the second part of the book, Fiorenza seeks to assess whether and how much Revelation shares in the theological structure of the Fourth Gospel. Fiorenza proposes that a careful analysis of Revelation would suggest that Pauline, Johannine, and C... Free Essays on Religion â€Å"All have sinned and come short of the glory of God.†(Romans 3:23) The fall of man- it’s a common topic all throughout the Bible. Many allusions to this familiar Biblical theme are made in the war-time novel, A Separate Peace, by American author John Knowles. In this work, Knowles relates many of his experiences as a teenage boy attending boarding school during World War Two. He uses Biblical allusions to reveal much about human nature. In Genesis 4:3-5 the Bible says, â€Å"In the course of time Cain brought some of the fruits of the soil as an offering to the Lord. But Able brought fat portions from some of the firstborn of his flock. The Lord looked with favor on Abel and his offering, but on Cain and his offering he did not look with favor. So Cain was very angry and his face was downcast.† Much like Cain’s jealousy toward his brother Abel in Genesis, the protagonist Gene is often placing himself in competition with his best friend and worst enemy, Phineas. Phineas, affectionately known as Finny is much like Able. He is innocent and pure in his views on life and others. Knowles says he â€Å",Did abide by certain rules which he seemed to cast in the form of Commandments. (Pg 26)† Able was honest and wise by choosing to follow God’s orders. Thus, God was pleased with Able’s offering. Cain, on the other hand was quite the opposite. He is presented as being rather depraved and corrupted. In this way, Gene is similar to Cain. In the book Gene realizes the grip that sin has on his soul and claims, â€Å"It was just some ignorance inside me, some crazy thing inside me, something blind, that’s all it was. (Pg 183) † Unfortunately, Gene, like Cain, becomes consumed with jealousy of Phineas, due to the realization that he can never be as good as Finny- morally or athletically. The reader sees this when Gene states that, â€Å"there never was and never could have been any rivalry between us. I was not of the same... Free Essays on Religion A religion is a system of beliefs usually involving the worship of supernatural forces or beings. Religious beliefs provide shape and meaning to one's perception of the universe. In other words, they provide a sense of order in what might otherwise be seen as a chaotic existence. Religions also provide understanding and meaning for inexplicable events such as a loved one being killed in an earthquake or some other unpredictable force of nature. For most religious people, their beliefs about the supernatural are at the very core of their worldviews. Karl Marx declared that as society changes so does religion. Marx’s opposition to this was from Max Webber who stated that religious ideas and beliefs shape changes in society. Although these men had varying ideals of society and religion, it is my belief that neither of them is incorrect in their thinking. When one looks at the origin of the major religions throughout the world one notices on important fact about each one. Each religion was created, by man, after the creation of the group of people who follow it. Marx was correct in his belief tat social changes bring on religious changes. Religions fulfill psychological needs. They help us confront and explain death. They help relieve our fears and anxieties about the unknown. Supernatural powers and beings may be appealed to or manipulated by people in times of crisis, as for example in praying to win a war or survive a fierce storm. Religions help ease the stress during life crises such as birth, marriage, serious illness, and death. It is not a coincidence that in most societies the "rites of passage" that are performed to help people adjust to these often highly emotional transitions are strongly religious. We also get psychological relief from "divinely given" moral codes. They lift some of the burden of decision making from our shoulders in difficult situations because they tell us what is right and wrong. Knowi... Free Essays on Religion What do I think about religion? That is a very tough question to ask myself. The first thing that comes to mind is what I was taught as a younger version of myself. That religion, in my case Christianity, was what my family did on Sundays. I was taught that religion was the reason I was here and why I continue to be here. It was a place and a thing of comfort. It had all the answers, except when it came to the point where I actually needed them. I was taught that the reason religion was around is to give the people that believe in it, hope. It was also our job to tell the people who did not believe that they should. Over the 23 years of my life I had had many â€Å"religious† experiences some good most bad. I have had a very tumultuous life in which I have been an inch away from death 3 times, in a coma for 2 weeks, and had many surgeries, most poignantly the removal of my left lung when I was 2 and a Kidney Transplant 1  ½ years ago. Now the reason I call these â€Å"religious† experiences is that my parents believe that God saved me. Also they think that I was â€Å"saved† for some reason that I have not figured out yet. They also believe that He (being God, of course) will show me the way. The reasoning for all this back story on me is so that you might understand what I think religion is, not necessarily what it was meant to be, but what I think it is now. I think religion originally intended on being exactly what my parents sought to teach me, a place of hope, faith, and love; knowing that some higher power is up there watching out for us. After many long years and numerous churches, youth groups, pastors, and sermons, I have come to think something entirely different from anyone else I know. Religion has come to be a place where the people who are â€Å"allowed in† come to bask in their own self-righteousness. It is an institution of separation. I am not saying that there is no such thing as religion any more, I... Free Essays on Religion Many people may be wondering what religion is exactly? Religion is a sacred engagement in which is believed to be a spiritual reality. Religion is a worldwide event that has played a part in all human culture and it is a much broader, more complex category than the set of beliefs or practices found in any single religion tradition. In all cultures, human being make a practice of interacting with what are taken to be spiritual powers. These powers may be in the form of god, spirits, ancestors, or any kind of sacred reality with which humans believe themselves to be connected. Sometimes a spiritual power is understood broadly as a complete reality, and sometimes it is approached through its appearance in special symbols. It may be regarded as external to the self, internal, or both. People interact with such presence in sacred manner-that is, with reverence and care. Religion is the term most commonly used to designate this difficult and different area of human experience. Where did religion come from? The word religion is derived from the Latin noun religio, which denotes both earnest observance of obligations and an inward spirit of reverence. Ways of Defining Religion In modern usage, religion covers a wide range of meanings that reflect the huge variety of ways the term can be interpreted. At one extreme, many committed believers recognize only their own traditions as a religion, understanding expressions such as worship and prayer to refer completely to the practices of their tradition. Some see religion-for example, â€Å" true love of God†, or â€Å" the path of enlightenment.† On the other hand it could be equated wit ignorance, passion, or wishful thinking. By defining religion as a sacred engagement with what is taken to be a spiritual reality, it is possible to consider the importance of religion in human life without making claims about what it really is or ought to be. Religion is not an object with a single, fixed defin... Free Essays on Religion Religion Religion in the 50's, 60's, 70's and 80's was seen as a spiritual movement and today since times have changed it is more what God can do for me than what I can do for God. So if we are to view in proper perspective the spiritual and religious conflicts of our age, as they are reflected in drama and fiction, then we must look at the outset to understand the nature of the relationship between literature and belief. Nothing is harder for a writer to write how they view religion or anyone else for that matter because it does not always go along with society’s ideals or views. Religion itself to day is seen as a joke especially with the televised religion that just takes money out of your pocket. After the attack on 9-11 and the war with Iraq this nation has started to turn towards God again, but honestly they are still to impatient because they don’t understand why things happen or for what reason. The world is running on time instead of patience or faith and that is wh at has lead this world into a downfall with religion. My father is almost fifty-one years old and grew up in a time in this country when there was a great spiritual awakening and a sensitivity to the things that pertained to God and it seemed like with religion, it didn’t matter what you believed there was a sacredness to it. For example in the Protestant religion they communed with God in their daily lives, either through their own understanding of the Bible or through experience with the Holy Spirit, and therefore needed no special rituals to secure or strengthen their faith. In practice, though, Protestants depended primarily on the Sunday service to preserve and reinforce their religious sentiments. It was in the church that people felt closest to God. It was there they heard the sermons that explained the Bible and upheld the evangelical ideal of moral behavior. My father said the he has seen many changes over the last few decades. His view on t... Free Essays on Religion According to the dictionary "religion is the service and worship of God or the supernatural."1 I challenge that definition. It is true that all religions do involve the worship of some supernatural force, however, it is also true that no religion in history has ever stopped at that. For a more complete definition of the word religion we also have to examine two other aspects. How has it affected man over the centuries? And what is the true motivation of its leadership? Some would have you believe that it has brought peace and harmony to the world and that its leaders are motivated by the service of their god. I suggest that a more accurate definition of word would be as follows. Religion, a feudal system of government which uses fear, hate and sometimes lies to control and manipulate people for the betterment of a select group of individuals. To better illustrate this point let's look at just three of the countless examples that human history has to offer. The Inquisition, "judicial institution, established by the papacy in the Middle Ages, charged with seeking out, trying, and sentencing people guilty of heresy."2 Heretics were considered enemies of the state. The penalty for heresy was torture and death. The crucifixion of Jesus Christ, "Jesus was taken to Golgotha and nailed to a cross, the Roman punishment for political offenders and criminals."2 The Crusades, "The name Crusade (from Latin, "Cross") was also applied, to the wars against pagan peoples, Christian heretics, and political foes of the papacy."2 All three examples illustrate how man has used God to justify his greed and quest for power. When the leadership was challenged, it used devine decree to justify the murder and torture of the innocent. We are expected to believe that a non-physical being order the religious leadership to aquire riches and land, ofte n at the demise of the poor and helpless. The misuse of God isn't limited to the Ancient world. Today we have... Free Essays on Religion Ethical Values In The Old Testament How we live our lives is governed by ethics. Ethics is â€Å"human moral conduct according to principles of what is good or right to do.† Our ethical values today descend primarily from a Christian ethic in which â€Å"a truly ethical decision, we are told, must be spontaneous, undirected, free - the individual's unfettered and uncoerced response to each new decision-demanding situation.† The ethical values of today, especially Christian ethics, borrow and carry forward the Hebrew ethics of the past. Yet it is hardly fair to explain Old Testament ethics with only what was borrowed from it. What sets Judaism apart from other religions of the time was its monotheistic basis. The ethics of Judaism is historical and traditional as opposed to philosophical and theoretical. â€Å"In Israel, for the first time, an ethical conception of God is attained, and this not philosophically but historically; while its view of the moral life is certain of justification not only by reason but by history.† Thus God is looked at as an ethical personality and is looked to as an example of good and right. In the Old Testament, God's voluntary (voluntary for God) covenant with man must be looked at as the prime example of ethical value. The covenant's requirements is the source of all ethics, morals, laws, and justice in the Old Testament. The Mosaic Covenant is the best example of ethical values and norms in the Old Testament. The Mosaic Covenant has three parts; the Decaloque, the Covenant Code; and the Holiness Code. The Decaloque is made up of apodictic (or absolute) law, it is unconditional and has no â€Å"ifs or buts† about it. This is commonly refereed to as the "Ten Commandments." Although legally vague these commandments are the basics for all ethical norms in the Old Testament. The Covenant Code is made up of casuistic (or conditional) law, it has a characteristic ... Free Essays on Religion Throughout the ages of Christianity, there have been many drawbacks to this cause. Many leaders among the Christian community were persecuted due to the disbelief of Christ being the Messiah among pagan worshipers, heathens, and even other credible religious leaders. This persecution more often led to death, or other horrifying results. But no matter what horrendous effects, there was always a brighter side causing the Christian faith to grow even stronger. Because of Rome’s strictness in following the laws and rules, they were very tradition bound. Many of the Pharisees were determined that the Old Testament was the only acceptable basis of religious law that the people of Rome should follow. The believed that Elijah was the Messiah, and they were waiting for his return. They also didn’t expect a â€Å"Messiah† to act the way that Christ did, having anything to do with sinners was looked down upon. However, after Christ’s death and resurrection, the disciples were told to go out into the world and spread the good news of their salvation. This didn’t appeal to the Pharisees at all, and they immediately set out to stop this message of freedom. The religious officials continuously put Simon and Peter in jail, Stephen was stoned to death, and there have been accounts of John’s attempted murder in boiling hot oil. Many Christians were flogged, stoned to death, skinned alive, fed to lions, an d many more gruesome things. Nero burned half of Rome and then blamed the Christians, he even dipped some in kerosene and then lit them on fire so that there was light for the sporting events. Peter was even crucified, but he didn’t feel he deserved to die the same way as Christ so he was crucified upside-down. Persecution was so bad that Christians were accused of having a â€Å"hatred for the human race,† cannibalism, and incest. The response of the Christians has a lot to do with the influence upon the church. The Bible sta... Free Essays on Religion World Views on Religion Religion is the eternal search for the divine. This quest has been sought after since the dawn of mankind. Over time there have been countless types of religions. People have died for their religion, people have killed for their religion and people have dedicated their lives to their religion. With such a powerful force as religion it is no wonder why people are so dedicated to their beliefs. Due to this fact it is easy to see why there is so much conflict in regards to this driving force. There are many types of world views that define the meaning of religion. I feel that religion is a choice of a person’s beliefs and the goals in their daily lifestyle they wish to pursue. Every culture in the religious world differs from one another. The question we ask ourselves is what is the difference? The beliefs of the eastern philosophies have a different outlook on religions than the western philosophies. In the western beliefs, people focus on the question in relation to one single god and its overall relationship with the universe and mankind. In the eastern beliefs people analyze the factual details in life and nature and the spirituality in life. As of my own personal views on religion as a whole, I believe that it works as a foundational â€Å"brace† for humankind. It allows a culture to follow traditions in their religion to reach their goals and moral standards....

Friday, February 21, 2020

Summarise and critically review the RationalEmotive model of Essay

Summarise and critically review the RationalEmotive model of psychological therapy - Essay Example This therapy helps the patients to recognize the difference between the two negative emotions. The Rational-Emotive Behavioural Therapy was proposed by Albert Ellis in 1955. Albert Ellis belonged to the psychoanalysis branch of psychology, but after noticing that the traditional techniques of helping individuals resolve their negative emotions took too long he developed a significant approach in solving their problems. He named it REBT (Rational-Emotive Behavioural Therapy). This technique can be differentiated from the other psychoanalysis methods due to its unique philosophy that an individual has the power to change and influence their beliefs and philosophy in order to gain mastery over themselves. Using their own thoughts patients following the REBT can radically change their mental health and break loose of traumatic situations. (Mulhauser, 2008) REBT employs the ABC Framework. The "A" stands for the Activating event. The activation event includes the actual event and more importantly the individual's immediate interpretation of it. The same event may trigger different emotions in different people. Some people may react to a death in the family by accepting the event whereas others may retreat into a protective shell avoiding the truth. The "B" stands for Beliefs. The beliefs of an individual are moulded by his experiences and related to their capacity of comprehending the event. Whether one takes a Rational Approach to the event or an Irrational Approach to analyzing the event relies solely on the individual's own beliefs. The last stage recognized in the framework is the Consequences. In the last stage of the framework a person actually reaches an opinion. In this stage he builds either a Healthy Negative Emotion or an Unhealthy Negative Emotion. Keeping the framework in mind a summarized version of events leading to the Consequences is discussed. A negative event occurs (stage A). The person can either have a Rational Approach to analyse the event which would lead to a Healthy Negative Emotion which is not a cause for concern. On the other hand he may take an Irrational Approach to analyse the event which would lead to an Unhealthy Negative Emotion. The main therapeutic technique relies on helping the individual realize that everything, even his emotions and beliefs are under his control. (REBTN, 2006) THE THERAPEUTIC APPROACH TO REBT The basic technique applied by psychoanalysts using the REBT technique is the moulding of the client's absolutist philosophies. The main aim is to modify dysfunctional emotions and to help the client recognize the beliefs and attitudes which bring the unwanted states and to change them into positive emotions. The most unique element of this therapeutic technique is that therapy can still take place even after sessions have ended with psychiatrists as this approach helps individuals deal with themselves and accept themselves and their problems. (PsychNet) APPRAISALS OF REBT As mentioned earlier one of the positive aspect of REBT is that it is an effective way of helping out the client even after the sessions are over. Since it bestows the client with self belief he can not only handle the present problem but can face any future challenge as well. It provides an individual with the self control he requires to manage his everyday life and problems. Another reason stated by clients using REBT is that it